Individuals from the 19th and early 20th centuries have been fascinating, to say the least. Impressed by the Industrial Revolution and groundbreaking scientific discoveries, the typical householder developed an curiosity in innovations, “enhancing” their lives through the use of cutting-edge (untested) science and know-how in each facet of their social and home lives.
Sadly, their enthusiasm typically ran away with them, and their disregard for well being and security typically led to catastrophe. Right here, we take a look at a number of the methods the typical individual from the Victorian period by means of the early 20th century might have killed himself whereas having fun with the advantages of scientific and technological progress.
10 Going To The Toilet
Visiting the toilet shouldn’t be a harmful enterprise. Nevertheless, the Victorians had a variety of perils to cope with. First was the water heater, which was gas-powered and sometimes exploded, probably due to the candles and oil lamps which have been typically utilized by residents who have been caught brief within the night time.
After which there have been the bogs themselves. Previous to the Nice Stink of 1858, when London was virtually uninhabitable because of the scorching climate and sewage smells, bogs with the s-bend design that we all know in the present day have been uncommon. Bogs dropped their contents straight into the sewers under, and the smells from sewer rose by means of the unimpeded pipes and, let’s assume, lingered.
And the sewers didn’t solely include eliminations however different types of human waste, too. The cemeteries of the interval weren’t well-regulated, and human stays often contaminated consuming water or flowed instantly into the sewers. And decomposing matter produces methane and carbon dioxide. Methane, notably when mixed with a flame from a candle or water heater, causes explosions.
Straight up by means of the bathroom.
In an effort to management the methane drawback, a lot of sewer fuel lamps have been put in. In a surprisingly inexperienced trend, engineers tried to energy the town’s streetlights utilizing methane fuel in an effort to scale back the damaging buildups. The lamps have been solely partially profitable, however the widespread introduction of s-bend bogs after the Nice Stink made utilizing the amenities somewhat safer.
9 Consuming A Sandwich
Loads of foodstuffs in Victorian England have been made with contaminated elements. One report in 1877 confirmed that ten % of butter, eight % of bread, and 50 % of gin had copper added to it, whereas purple lead was added to cheese to provide it a “wholesome” shade. Different adulterants included strychnine in beer, copper in pickles and jams, lead in mustard, iron in tea, and mercury in chocolate.
Bread, nevertheless, was a specific drawback. Only a few poor individuals at the moment had the amenities to bake their very own bread and subsequently purchased their every day loaves from road distributors. Bread was low cost, so it was a staple meals for a lot of, and virtually the one meals for some. Nevertheless, nearly all of this bread was adulterated with alum. Although it was not toxic in itself, alum acted to stop the absorption of vitamins in meals.
The alum bulked out the bread, making loaves seem bigger for his or her weight and thus extra engaging to poor households with many mouths to feed. Those that survived the sandwich fillings would have developed rickets or different illnesses due to their incapability to soak up vitamins effectively.
eight Strolling Down The Stairs
Although anybody can fall downstairs, the Victorians have been extra weak than most to extreme damage and even dying.
There have been only a few constructing laws at the moment and none in any respect when it got here to the development of modest houses. Stairs have been very slender, typically with a number of steep turns, which made navigation tough. Additionally, the builders didn’t have a regular measurement when developing their staircases, so steps inside a single staircase have been typically of various peak and width.
Not solely that, however nobody thought it needed to put in a handrail. Some staircases have been nothing greater than glorified ladders, up which ladies have been anticipated to climb whereas sporting lengthy clothes, typically whereas toting a toddler or two on their hip.
Unsurprisingly, deaths from falling down stairs have been widespread.
7 Enjoying Billiards
Snooker and billiards have been as soon as thought-about video games for gents solely. The balls have been made out of ivory and have been subsequently very costly. Nevertheless, when celluloid was developed as an ivory alternative, the potential for billiards for the plenty appeared a really actual one.
There was an enormous drawback of utilizing celluloid over ivory, although: It was risky and flammable—very flammable, in reality. That was unlucky, as a result of one billiard ball hanging towards one other was typically sufficient to trigger an explosion. Gamers complained that the noise appeared like a gun going off.
Which is sufficient to put you off your shot.
6 Sporting Make-up
Often, once you inform a lady that they’ve a sure glow about them, it’s a praise. For the Radium Women, nevertheless, it was extra an indication of impending demise.
Through the early 20th century, radium was thought-about to be one thing of a miracle aspect. Cosmetics producers claimed (with none proof) that small quantities of radium have been useful to well being. Clients have been bought face lotions and soaps laced with radium that have been assured to make their pores and skin glow. Different producers added radium to power tablets, butter, and even chocolate.
Radium was additionally added to color, which was used to embellish clock faces with luminous dials. And in the course of the 1910s and 1920s, ladies who painted them have been informed to lick their brushes after dipping them within the radium-laced paint with a view to level the top of the comb.
The radium was extraordinarily harmful, and people who have been in common contact with it typically died painful deaths. The clock painters, generally known as the Radium Women, suffered terribly. When the physique of 1 was exhumed 5 years after her dying, it was nonetheless stated to be “glowing.”
5 Cleansing Out The Gutters
The Victorians beloved their scientific discoveries and innovations, however they weren’t all the time cautious about testing them earlier than they went into full-scale manufacturing.
So once they found asbestos, an affordable, nonflammable materials, they used it for every part. Its use in guttering was widespread, however it was additionally discovered everywhere in the Victorian and Edwardian house in insulation, flooring tiles, and heaters. It was additionally utilized in some extra unlikely and disturbing merchandise, akin to youngsters’s toys. The attractiveness of a nonflammable materials in such merchandise is clear.
Sadly, although asbestos is splendidly flame-retardant, it causes extreme respiratory illnesses and most cancers.
four Waking Up To A Good Cup Of Tea
Ever creative, the Victorians and Edwardians have been all the time in search of methods to save lots of labor for even the only issues. A few of their innovations have been sensible, however others fell into the wacky and ineffective class. And a few of them have been simply plain harmful.
They tried to develop bottles that infants might feed themselves with, to save lots of mother and father the difficulty of getting to select them up, and made a pump-action vacuum cleaner that such wanted vigorous bellow-pumping that it will have given Charles Atlas a troublesome exercise. However proper on the prime of the listing of the creative, ridiculous, and harmful was Albert E. Richardson’s patented Automated Tea Making Machine. He mixed an alarm clock with a kettle set over a spirit burner.
The burner used methylated spirits, which have been lit by the automated putting of a match when the alarm went off. One other alarm rang when the kettle was boiled, and a spring mechanism tipped the water into the ready cup. Nevertheless, if the match did not ignite, or if it ignited on the improper time, the teasmade was probably deadly.
three Setting The Desk
The ingenuity, or stupidity, of Mr. Henry Cooper knew no bounds when, in 1902, he invented the self-illuminating desk material. Why go to the difficulty of placing a material over a desk after which putting a lamp on prime of it, he reasoned, when you possibly can accomplish each directly together with his patented electrical tablecloth?
The material consisted of two layers of felt with an electrical circuit sandwiched in between them and 6 electrical mild bulb sockets poking out via the material. When plugged in, the material would give a stunning, intimate really feel to his banquet, with out all the additional (two seconds) effort of utilizing separate lamps.
Pretty. Until, in fact, a visitor spilled their wine, through which case the entire thing would have gone up like a field of firecrackers. Again to the drafting board, I feel, Mr Cooper.
2 Stocking The Fridge
Holding meals recent has all the time been an enormous home drawback. Numerous nonmechanical strategies had been developed, comparable to meat safes, however for the creative Victorians, that wasn’t ok. They needed to supply a mechanical or electrical fridge that may maintain meals cool.
In 1834, American inventor Jacob Perkins unveiled the first-ever refrigeration unit. The fridge was billed as a vapor compression refrigeration unit and as an “equipment and means for producing ice, and in cooling fluids.” Nevertheless, the fridge was not notably dependable and really costly and by no means caught on.
By the 1890s, nevertheless, the cooling course of had been “improved” by the addition of methyl chloride fuel. This cooled the fridge however was, sadly, extraordinarily poisonous. Manufacturing ceased when a fridge leaked whereas nonetheless within the manufacturing unit, inflicting a number of deaths.
Although the Victorians have been progressive and farseeing in creating fridge know-how, lower than two % of the inhabitants of Britain owned a fridge earlier than the outbreak of World Struggle II. Later, safer, improvements, in fact, demonstrated simply how proper the Victorians have been concerning the usefulness of a fridge.
1 Doing A Bit Of Mild Ironing
Being a laundry maid within the Victorian period was a troublesome job. Irons have been made from (shock, shock) iron, which was heavy, and a set of irons have been wanted in several styles and sizes to deal with totally different jobs. They have been positioned in a fireplace to warmth after which cooled to the right temperature. Steam was created by masking the garment with a humid material earlier than ironing. It was scorching, sweaty work.
So it was solely to be anticipated that somebody would attempt to make an electrical iron to make the job simpler. In 1882, Henry W. Seely of New York was the primary individual to patent a workable electrical iron. The iron was wired, completely, right into a circuit. Nevertheless, it was not potential to manage the temperature of the iron, which made it troublesome to iron garments with out burning them. And it was a fireplace danger, which relatively defeats the purpose.
However, like many of those innovations, these early electrical irons have been the forerunners of one thing actually helpful and thrilling (electrical tablecloths excepted), which exhibits that perseverance could be the mom of success. Or harmful desk dressings.
Ward Hazell is a author who travels, and an occasional journey author.